Project Apollo Annotated Bibliography
POPULAR CULTURE AND PROMOTION
Atwill, William Dorsey. "Fire and Power: Narratives of the
Space Age." Ph.D. Diss. Duke University, 1990. A deconstructive
analysis of the space program using Apollo images and rhetoric.
Bainbridge, William Sims. "The Impact of Science Fiction
on Attitudes Toward Technology." In Emme, Eugene M. Editor.
Science Fiction and Space Futures, Past and Present. San
Diego, CA: AAS History Series, Vol. 5, American Astronauti- cal
Society, 1982. Pp. 121-35. In this article the author challenges
the traditional interpretation that science fiction informs the
reader about science and propagandiz- es in favor of technological
progress. Instead, he finds that new schools of science fiction
sometimes promulgate entirely different sets of values based on
an anti- technology bias. Even so, Bainbridge documents the close
linkage between science fiction as a promoter of spaceflight and
other technological advances. Such a linkage was present in the
Apollo program of the 1960s.
_____. The Spaceflight Revolution: A Sociological Study.
New York: Wiley- Interscience, 1976. Reprint, Malabar, FL: Robert
E. Krieger Publishing Company, 1983. This important but not entirely
persuasive sociological study traces the development of the idea
of spaceflight from its science-fictional beginnings through the
rise of mass market magazines and compares it with the actual
fact of spaceflight as it emerged in the 1960s. The author finds
that a conspiracy of technological zealots manipulated the U.S.
government to create an organization and fund an aggressive lunar
landing program. Bainbridge asserts that "Not the public
will, but private fanaticism drove men to the moon" (p. 1).
The book's strength rests on Bainbridge's analysis of the American
and British Interplanetary Societies, the science fiction subculture,
the "Committee of the Future" (1970-1974) of the World
Future Society, and the role of "fandom" in promoting
spaceflight. This type of analysis, while useful, is not carefully
tied to the development of public policy relating to the space
program. In spite of the argument's other attractions, Bainbridge
does not convincingly demonstrate how the "space boosters"
were able to create Project Apollo and to persuade President Kennedy
to announce his lunar decision in 1961.
de Bergerac, Cyrano. Voyage dans la Lune (The Voyage
to the Moon). Paris, 1649. This books describes a fictional
trip to the Moon by propulsion from firecrackers. As soldiers
lit fuses to the firecrackers, the hero jumped into a gondola
and tier upon tier of explosives ignited like rockets and launched
him to the Moon. Thus Cyrano's hero became the first flyer in
fiction to reach the Moon by means of rocket thrust, a premonition
of Newton's third law of gravity about every action having an
equal and opposite reaction. Once on the Moon, the character in
this novel had several adventures, and later in the book he also
journeyed to the Sun.
Braun, Wernher von. "Crossing the Last Frontier." Collier's.
22 March 1952, pp. 24-29, 72-73. Featuring illustrations by Chesley
Bonestell, this was one of several articles written by von Braun,
then technical director of the Army Ordnance Guided Missiles Development
Group at the Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, AL, to generate enthusiasm
in the United States for a spaceflight program that would land
humans on the Moon. This and related efforts were critical in
increasing public belief in the possibility of reaching the Moon,
although it took the launching of Sputnik by the Soviets to propel
the United States to establish a space program and the election
of John F. Kennedy as president to establish a landing on the
Moon within a decade as the goal of the Apollo program. Here,
von Braun provided details about a space station he envisioned
as "either the greatest force for peace ever devised, or
one of the most terrible weapons of war--depending on who makes
and controls it." This evocation of the Cold War was characteristic
of the times and proved a formidable tactic in generating support
for U.S. space efforts. While he spoke of the possible use of
the station as a platform for the launching of atomic bombs, however,
he also described peaceful, scientific uses of the station, such
as meteorological observa- tions.
Braun, Wernher von. "Man on the Moon: The Journey."
Collier's. 18 October 1952, pp. 52-59. With illustrations
by Chesley Bonestell, this was another of the articles von Braun
wrote to promote the spaceflight movement. This particular article
set forth in understandable terms many of the technological details
von Braun expected a voyage to the Moon to involve. While some
of them proved not to be prophetic, they were graphic and helped
to grip the imaginations of the American public.
Braun, Wernher von, and Ordway, Frederick I., III. Space Travel
(New York: Harper & Row, 1985). This update of History
of Rocketry & Space Travel contains an excellent summary
of the early visions of space flight and the execution of Project
Bush, George. "Remarks by the President at 20th Anniversary
of Apollo Moon Landing." National Air and Space Museum, July
20, 1989. Copy available in NASA Historical Reference Collection,
NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. At this
anniversary celebration, President Bush recalled the excitement
of the Apollo 11 lunar landing and endorsed NASA's long-range
plan, the Space Exploration Initiative, an ambitious effort that
would return Americans to the Moon, establish a lunar base, and,
then, using a NASA-built space station, send human expeditions
to the planet Mars. In advancing SEI, Bush followed the classic
script for exercising leadership in space. He made a Kennedy-like
announcement, complete with a strong personal commitment, proposing
the initiative during a major address commemorating the twentieth
anniversary of the first landing on the Moon delivered from the
steps of the National Air and Space Museum with the Apollo 11
astronauts at his side.
Cooke, Hereward Lester, with the collaboration of Dean, James
D. Eyewitness to Space: Paintings and Drawings Related to the
Apollo Mission to the Moon Selected, with a Few Exceptions, from
the Art Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(1963 to 1969). Foreword by J. Carter Brown. Preface by Thomas
O. Paine. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1971. A collection of 258 paintings
and drawings in reproduction, created by a variety of artists
ranging from Norman Rockwell to Chesley Bonestell. A magnificent
and variegated collection.
Crouch, Tom D. "`To Fly to the Moon': Cosmic Voyaging in
Fact and Fiction from Lucian to Sputnik." In Emme, Eugene
M. Editor. Science Fiction and Space Futures, Past and Present.
San Diego, CA: AAS History Series, Vol. 5, American Astronautical
Society, 1982. Pp. 7-26. In this article Crouch traces the impact
of science fiction on space pioneers like Robert H. Goddard.
Clarke, Arthur C. The Exploration of Space. New York: Harper
& Brothers, 1951. In this book a senior science fiction writer
provided both fiction and non- fiction in one of the more representative
attempts to build realistic expectations of space travel. Although
largely concerned with space technology, the sequence of chapters
in this influential book laid out a blueprint for the future of
space exploration that included a lunar landing on the Moon and
_____. Going Into Space. Los Angeles: Trend Books, 1954.
A soft-cover, well- illustrated, comic-like book laying out "thrilling
material" on "man's interplanetary future" for
"avid space enthusiasts." One of a number of easy-to-read
"dime store" books on the future of space exploration
that appeared in the 1950s and early 1960s. It emphasized the
attraction of the Moon as a place to locate an Earth colony and
as a jumping-off place to the remainder of the Solar System.
"Columbuses of Space." New York Times. December
22, 1968. This important editorial compares the flight of Apollo
8, the first circumlunar mission, to the first voyage of Christopher
Columbus in 1492.
Crichton, Michael. The Andromeda Strain. New York: Alfred
A. Knopf, 1969. Inspired by the failure of Biosatellite I in 1966,
Crichton's fictional account of an alien organism run amok contributed
to public concern about extraterrestrial contamination and NASA's
decision to quarantine the first three astronaut crews to return
from the Moon.
Disney Productions, Walt. Man and the Moon. 1955. Originally
produced to promote the Disneyland theme park, this widely-viewed
television program on "Walt Disney Presents" sported
the powerful image of a wheel-like space station as a launching
point for a mission to the Moon. This production included a cameo
by Wernher von Braun who explained the technical details of a
lunar landing mission. The episode deliberately sought to shape
public opinion and influence government policy.
Donovan, Robert J. "Moon Voyage Turns Men's Thoughts Inward."
Los Angeles Times. December 29, 1968. This editorial reflects
on the religious and spiritual significance of Apollo 8.
Drury, Allen. The Throne of Saturn. Garden City, NY: Doubleday
and Co., 1971. This work, appearing at essentially the same as
the Apollo 14 mission to the Moon, is a fictional story of the
rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union over space
exploration. It focuses on the end of the Apollo program and the
continuing race into space in the post-lunar landing era. Drury
uses the novel to ask the question, why do humans need to be in
space? He argues the issue back and forth, never giving a definitive
Durant, Frederick C., III, and Miller, Ron. World's Beyond:
The Art of Chesley Bonestell. Norfolk: Donning, 1983. Bonestell's
paintings helped to create realistic expectations of space between
the 1940s and the 1960s. They were a powerful means of demonstrating
to the public the reality of spaceflight that led to the Apollo
"Footprints in the Dirty Sand." Washington Post.
December 28, 1968, p. A10. This editorial demonstrates that the
wonders of the flight of Apollo 8 even impressed the normally
critical editorial writers at the Washington Post.
Goddard, Robert H. A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes.
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Volume
71, Number 2, 1919. In this monograph, one of the most important
in his career, Goddard argued from a firm theoretical base that
rockets could be used to explore the upper atmosphere. Moreover,
he suggested that with a velocity of 6.95 miles/second, without
air resistance, an object could escape Earth's gravity and head
into infinity, or to other celestial bodies. He also suggested
launching a rocket to the Moon with flash powder that would ignite
on contact as a means of tracking it. Although Goddard refused
to work with other scientists to develop American rocketry, remaining
essentially a lone inventor, this paper and his example did help
inspire others to follow in his footsteps.
Goldstein, Lawrence. Editor. "The Moon Landing and its Aftermath."
Michigan Quarterly, 8 (Spring 1979): 153-363. This collection
of art, poems, letters, essays, and other articles takes up the
entire issue. Together it could be described as a cultural reaction
to Apollo 11 and the overall lunar landing program.
Haggerty, James J. "Apollo: End of a Beginning--Will Mankind
Nurture the Seed?" Aerospace Perspectives, 2 (March
1973): unpaginated. Discusses the general history of Apollo and
then makes a case for the continuation of an aggressive space
Horrigan, Brian. "Popular Culture and Visions of the Future
in Space, 1901-2001." In Sinclair, Bruce. Editor. New
Perspectives on Technology and American Culture. (Philadelphia:
The American Philosophical Society, 1986). Pp. 49-67. A sophisticated
treatment of the influence of popular culture upon the space program,
including Apollo, with treatment of science fiction in literature,
the movies, and television.
Kasson, John. Amusing the Millions. New York: Hill and
Wang, 1978. In 1903 the creators of "A Trip to the Moon"
opened Luna Park, a fantasy-like setting, described in Kasson's
book. Fifty million people visited the park in its first five
Krugman, Herbert E. "Public Attitudes Toward the Apollo Space
Program, 1965-1975." Journal of Communication. 27
(Autumn 1977): 87-93. Results from a four-times yearly Trendex
poll that surveyed support for the U.S. space program over the
Apollo era. The poll found that less than half of the people in
the U.S. supported the level of spending necessary to accomplish
Project Apollo, but that an overwhelming number supported the
idea of landing on the Moon.
Kauffman, James Lee. "Selling Space: The Kennedy Administration,
the Media, and Congressional Funding for Project Apollo, 1961-1963."
Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1989. This is a sophisticated
discussion of the efforts by NASA and the White House to continue
ensuring that sufficient public support was present for Project
Apollo so that resources would be allocated to it by Congress.
It deals only with the Kennedy administration, however, and therefore
leaves out the most interesting part of this story, the efforts
to keep the project moving forward expeditiously after its newness
had worn off and after other priorities had emerged for which
dollars were needed.
Kepler, Johann. Kepler's Somnium: The Dream or Posthumous Work
on Lunar Astronomy. Translated by Edward Rosen. Madison: University
of Wisconsin Press, 1967, pp. 17-122. Although technology did
not develop to the extent that actual travel to the Moon could
take place, for centuries people posited that it was theoretically
possible and longed for the time when it would happen. When Galileo
first broadcast his findings about the solar system in 1610, he
sparked a flood of speculation about lunar flight. Johann Kepler,
himself a pathbreaking astronomer, posthumously published a novel,
Somnium (Dream) (1634), that recounted a dream of
a supernatural voyage to the Moon in which the visitors encountered
serpentine creatures. He also included much scientific information
in the book, speculating on the difficulties of overcoming the
Earth's gravitational field, the nature of the elliptical paths
of planets, the problems of maintaining life in the vacuum of
space, and the geographical features of the Moon.
Krug, Linda T., Presidential Perspectives on Space Exploration:
Guiding Metaphors from Eisenhower to Bush. New York: Praeger,
1991. This important study assesses the use of language in building
and maintaining support for aggressive space activities. The centerpiece
of this study is the successful use of language to ensure that
Project Apollo was carried out within the time constraints mandated
by President Kennedy in 1961.
Lasser, David. The Conquest of Space. New York: Penguin,
1931. This is the first realistic non-fiction book on space travel
written in the English language. It was authored by the founder
of the American Interplanetary Society. Lasser was also the first
editor of Amazing Stories. One of the centerpieces of this
book was a trip to the Moon.
Ley, Willy. Rockets. New York: Viking Press, 1944. A German
emigr, Ley labored to convince interested readers that rockets
would soon be able to carry humans off the surface of the Earth
and to the Moon. This was one of the earliest books on rocketry
for the general American public, serving as a basic reference
source for future science fiction and reality writing.
Ley, Willy. Rockets, Missiles, and Men in Space. New York:
Viking Press, 1968. This is the fourth and final edition of 21
printings of the work first published as Rockets. It emphasizes
the possibilities of space flight as a reality rather than science
fiction. Ley came to the U.S. in 1935, and this book became of
the most significant textbooks available in the mid-twentieth
century on the possibilities of space travel. Once again, the
book emphasizes the importance of a trip to the Moon as the first
step by humanity off the Earth and into the universe.
Ley, Willy, and Bonestell, Chesley. The Conquest of Space.
New York: Viking Press, 1949. A best-selling book containing Bonestell's
fantastic depictions of the Earth and the Moon. The oblique paintings
of the Moon from lunar space gave the public a view remarkably
like the one that NASA would provide more than a decade later
after its first landing there with the Surveyor space probe.
MacLeish, Archibald. "A Reflection: Riders on Earth Together,
Brothers in Eternal Cold." New York Times, December
25, 1968. This is a poet's comments on the significance of seeing
the Earth "as it truly is," during the Christmas flight
of Apollo 8. MacLeish summed up the feelings of many people when
he wrote at the time of the Apollo 8 circumlunar flight, that
"To see the Earth as it truly is, small and blue and beautiful
in that eternal silence where it floats, is to see ourselves as
riders on the Earth together, brothers on that bright loveliness
in the eternal cold--brothers who know now that they are truly
"Man Will Conquer Space Soon." Collier's. March
22, 1952; plus October 18, 1952, October 25, 1952, February 28,
1953, March 7, 1953, March 14, 1953, June 27, 1953, April 30,
1954, and June 25, 1954. This famous Collier's magazine
series of articles helped to build public interest in space exploration
by declaring its "inevitability."
Mazlish, Bruce. Editor. The Railroad and the Space Program:
An Exploration in Historical Analogy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,
1965. This is an attempt to document the "social inventions"
generated by the railroad in American history with those of the
space program as manifested especially in Project Apollo. While
the book deals largely with the development of railroads, they
do not provide, Mazlish argues in the introduction, a useful comparison
with the space program and therefore demonstrates the limitations
of historical analogy.
Michaud, Michael A.G. "The New Demographics of Space."
Aviation Space. 2 (Fall 1984): 46-47. Updates to 1981 the
results of polling on American support for the U.S. space program
originally reported in the Krugman article.
_____. Reaching for the High Frontier: The American Pro-Space
Movement, 1972- 1984. New York: Praeger, 1986. Michaud presents
a cogent history of and commentary on the pro-space efforts made
by voluntary organizations that arose near the end of the Apollo
program. Michaud identifies the key groups, traces their origins
and goals, and describes how they had a subtle but critical influence
on the space policy of the nation during the late 1960s and early
1970s. These groups lobbied with Congress and used publicity to
support the space effort, not always with the expected results,
however. Their intent was to turn ideas and a diffuse pro- space
sentiment into legislation aimed at building support for NASA's
program. This book represents the first systematic attempt to
analyze the space booster efforts of the latter 1960s and the
1970s, and although a fine contribution, it should not be the
final word on the subject.
Michener, James A. "Looking Toward Space." Omni.
May 1980, pp. 57-58, 121. This fine article hits home to the heart
of the American sense of pioneering and argues that the next great
challenge in this arena is space. "A nation that loses its
forward thrust is in danger," he comments; "the way
to retain it is exploration" (p. 58). It is an eloquent and
moving defense of the American space program in all its permutations.
_____. "Manifest Destiny." Omni. April 1981,
pp. 48-50, 102-104. An outstanding reading experience, this article,
by the dean of American popular novelists, encapsulates all the
most cherished principles for manned space flight. It is human
destiny to explore, he notes, and space is the next logical path.
He recounts the success of Apollo as the first step in humanity's
movement beyond the Earth.
Miller, Ron, and Durant, Frederick C., III. "Lunar Fantasies:
The Story of the First Great Moon Expedition-- of 1978."
Omni. February 1987, pp. 50-55. This is a short summary
of the lunar expedition outlined by von Braun and other writers
for the Collier's series.
Mueller, George E. "The Space Program: Future Plans,"
delivered before the International Air Transport Association,
Amsterdam, October 23, 1969. Available in the NASA Historical
Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters,
Washington, DC. In this classic but erroneous statement on the
future of space exploration, the head of NASA's Office of Manned
Space Flight predicted that more than 200 people would be living
in space--in Earth and lunar orbit or on the Moon-- by the mid-1980s.
Nicholson, Marjorie. Voyages to the Moon. New York: Macmillan,
1948. This little-known book describes the possibility of spaceflight
and a landing on the Moon.
O'Neill, Gerard K. The High Frontier: Human Colonies in Space.
New York: William Morrow, 1976. A tract by the leader of the space
colonization movement, this book suggests that the U.S. should
build on the success of Apollo with lunar colonies from which
the rest of the Solar System could be explored.
Ordway, Frederick I., III, and Liebermann, Randy. Editors. Blueprint
for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact. Washington: Smithsonian
Institution Press, 1992. This recent collection of articles by
a wide range of contributors runs the gamut from visions of space
flight to projections for the future. Most of the contributions
are rather undetailed and consist mostly of overviews of their
subjects, but they are written by such well-known figures as Ben
Bova, Sam Moskowitz, Frank Winter, Ernst Stuhlinger, Fred L. Whipple,
John M. Logsdon, Sally K. Ride, and Thomas O. Paine, as well as
the editors, with Liebermann offering a discussion of "The
Collier's and Disney Series," especially relevant
to this section of the bibliography. There are also brief bibliographies
at the ends of articles, and the book is lavishly illustrated.
Ordway, Frederick I., III; Adams, Carsbie C.; and Sharpe, Mitchell
R. Dividends from Space. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1972.
This is an attempt to show that the costs of the space program
have been more than returned in benefits to humanity, both tangible
and intangible. The authors discuss at length the use of space
systems to improve weather forecasting, facilitate communications,
and inventory Earth resources. They also emphasize the development
of the technological base with such major programs as Project
Paine, Thomas O., "1969: A Space Odyssey," address to
the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington,
DC, November 7, 1968. Copy available in NASA Historical Reference
Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington,
DC. This speech details the efforts of NASA to land astronauts
on the Moon in 1969 from the perspective of the NASA administrator
at the time.
_____. Pioneering the Space Frontier: The Report of the National
Commission on Space. New York: Bantam Books, 1986. In 1984
Congress passed a bill requiring the president to name a National
Commission on Space to develop a future space agenda for the United
States. The White House in March 1985 chose Thomas O. Paine as
chairman of the Commission. Since leaving NASA fifteen years earlier,
Paine had been a tireless spokesman for an expansive view of what
should be done in space. The fourteen other commissioners were
a diverse group, ranging from Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong
and test pilot Chuck Yeager to the U.S. Ambassador to the United
Nations, Jeanne Kirkpatrick. After a year's study the Commission
published a lavishly illustrated, glossy book endorsing "a
pioneering mission for 21st-century America"--"to lead
the exploration and development of the space frontier, advancing
science, technology, and enterprise, and building institutions
and systems that make accessible vast new resources and support
human settlements beyond Earth orbit, from the highlands of the
Moon to the plains of Mars." The report also contained a
"Declaration for Space" that included a rationale for
exploring and settling the Solar System and outlined a long-range
space program for the United States.
Pendray, G. Edward. "Next Stop the Moon." Collier's.
September 1946, pp. 11- 13. Six years prior to the famous "Man
Will Conquer Space Soon" series, this article argued that
the Moon contained "riches beyond your wildest dreams"
and advocated its exploration.
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Richard
M. Nixon, 1969. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office,
1971, p. 542. Nixon's statement that the Apollo 11 voyage was
so significant that it constituted the greatest week in human
history since the creation.
Pyne, Stephen J. "Space: A Third Great Age of Discovery."
Space Policy. 4 (August 1988): 187-99. In this article,
Pyne suggests that the world has known three great ages of exploration:
(1) the circumnavigation of the globe, with its attendant discovery
of new lands; (2) the traversing and cataloguing of newly-found
continents; and (3) the exploration of the uninhabited regions
of Antarctica, the deep ocean basins, and outer space. The author
points to the culturally and historically determined nature of
discovery, which has thus far been largely a Western phenomenon,
but emphasizes the qualitatively different character of space
exploration, which takes the Earth, rather than any particular
part of it, as its starting point, and which sets forth to chart
regions that are probably abiotic.
Redford, Emmette, and White, Orion F. What Manned Space Program
After Reaching the Moon? Government Attempts to Decide, 1962-1968.
Syracuse, NY: The Inter-University Case Program, January 1971.
Limited edition study of the efforts of NASA and other government
agencies to determine what policies and programs it should pursue
for the future space program. It is especially helpful as a statement
of where leaders thought the U.S. should be going at the very
time the debate over NASA's goals after Apollo was taking place.
"Return from the Moon." New York Times. December
28, 1968. A Times editorial in which the writers called
Apollo 8 "the most fantastic voyage of all times."
Roberts, Christopher B. "NASA and the Loss of Space Policy
Leadership." Technology in Society. 12 (1990): 139-55.
Since the days of Apollo, NASA's efforts have consistently exceeded
the willingness of the political consensus to provide adequate
funding. As a result of the failure of U.S. leadership, including
that within NASA, to fully comprehend the political dimensions
of the space program, the U.S. effort has drifted and the nation
lost the commanding role it had with the success of Apollo. In
this chapter, the author develops a new analytical framework for
NASA's development and management of the space program, focusing
on the dominance of bureaucratic goals over program goals.
Roland, Alex. "Barnstorming in Space: The Rise and Fall of
the Romantic Era of Spaceflight, 1957-1986." In Byerly, Radford,
Jr. Editor. Space Policy Reconsid- ered. Boulder, CO: Westview
Press, 1989. Pp. 33-52. In this article Alex Roland, a leading
critic of NASA's human spaceflight program, argues that NASA is
wedded to a large and expensive astronaut program, despite budgetary
and program realities, because of its longstanding vision of what
the space program should be. Roland asserts that in the post-Challenger
era since 1986 the U.S. is between the first and second stages
of spaceflight. In that first stage, the romantic "barnstorming"
stage of rollicking excitement and wasted energies, the focus
was on the initial departure from planet Earth. A centerpiece
of that romantic era of spaceflight, marked as it was by a series
of specular events, was Project Apollo and the landing on the
Moon. The second stage is undefined, but Roland contends that
it will be different from the earlier era and marked by gradual
development and practical application of space technology.
Ryan, Cornelius. Editor. Conquest of the Moon. New York:
Viking Press, 1953. Expanded version of a series of scientific
articles that appeared in Col- lier's under the title "Man
on the Moon" in 1952. Includes articles by Willy Ley, Wernher
von Braun, and Fred Whipple, as well as illustrations by Chesley
Sharpe, Mitchell R. Living in Space: The Astronaut and his
Environment. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., 1969. Discusses
biomedical and psychological aspects of spaceflight as well as
the perils and advantages of doing it. Presents a strong argument
for expanding human spaceflight through a rigorous Apollo program
and aggressive efforts thereafter.
Shea, Joseph F., "Manned Space Flight Program," address
delivered at the Third National Conference on the Peaceful Uses
of Space, May 6, 1963, NASA News Release. Copy available in NASA
Historical Reference Collection, NASA History Office, NASA Headquarters,
Washington, DC. The Deputy Director of NASA's Office of Manned
Space Flight considers space exploration as a matter of national
survival and applauds President Kennedy's decision to undertake
Project Apollo on an aggressive timetable.
Shelton, William R. "Science and Fantasy, A Chronicle of
Space." In Shelton, William R. Man's Conquest of Space.
Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1968. Shelton recounts
the events and people that have inspired space flight on the eve
of the Apollo expeditions to the Moon.
Sidey, Hugh. "Pioneers in Love with the Frontier." Time.
10 February 1986, pp. 46-47. This thoughtful discussion of the
development of the U.S. space program emphasizes the role of the
frontier and the exploration imperative in the United States.
Sidey, an extremely articulate commentator, suggests that nothing
worthwhile is gained without sacrifice. This was a response to
the naysayers of the space program after the January 1986 Challenger
accident but emphasizes the 1961 Apollo decision of President
Kennedy as the quintessential statement of a vision of exploring
Smith, Michael L. "Selling the Moon: The U.S. Manned Space
Program and the Triumph of Commodity Scientism." In Fox,
Richard Wrightman, and Lears, T.J. Jackson. Editors. The Culture
of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History. New York:
Pantheon Books, 1983. Pp. 177-209. Part of a larger collection
about advertising and American culture, this article analyzes
the role of NASA, the aerospace industry, and political leaders
in building support for Project Apollo. The author asserts that
Apollo provides a useful vehicle for analyzing the evolution of
consumer culture in the 1960s. Its social function, its publicists,
and the form of presentation approximated those of the most highly
developed communication medium in American culture: advertizing.
In the process the program accomplished its purpose; it articulated
to the world "an image of national purpose [in the U.S.]
that equated technological preeminence with military, ideological,
and cultural supremacy" (p. 177).
Smith, Ralph A. The Exploration of the Moon. London: Frederich
Muller, Ltd., 1954. With text by Arthur C. Clarke. In this popular
work on space, paintings by British artist Ralph Smith dominated
the book, with Arthur Clarke arguing that "there are no insuperable
obstacles on the road to the planets" and asserting that
an aggressive space exploration should begin with trips to the
Thomas, Davis. Editor. Moon: Man's Greatest Adventure.
New York: H.N. Abrams, 1970. A large-format, illustrated work,
the centerpiece of this book consists of three major essays. One,
by Fred A. Whipple, Harvard University astronomer, describes the
possibilities of space flight for scientific inquiry. Another
by Silvio A. Bedini, at the Smithsonian Institution, deals with
the Moon's role in human affairs. A final article by Wernher von
Braun of NASA analyzes Project Apollo and its execution in the
"Topics of the Times." New York Times. January
13, 1920, p. 12. Reprinted in Clarke, Arthur C. Editor. The
Coming of the Space Age. New York: Meredith Press, 1967. This
is a New York Times editorial that was written in response
to Robert H. Goddard's 1919 Smithsonian Institution publication,
A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. It doubts that
Goddard's rockets could be used to reach the Moon, since according
to the Times editorial writers, there is no air in space
against which the rocket could push. It referred to Goddard as
a dreamer whose ideas had no scientific validity. It also compared
his theories to those advanced by novelist Jules Verne, indicating
that such musing is "pardonable enough in him as a romancer,
but its like is not so easily explained when made by a savant
who isn't writing a novel of adventure." The Times
also questioned both Goddard's credentials as a scientist and
the Smithsonian's rationale for funding his research and publishing
Verne, Jules. De la Terre
la Lune (From the Earth
to the Moon). Paris: J. Hetzel, 1866. This is a pathbreaking
work of science fiction that incorporat- ed a more sophisticated
understanding of the realities of space flight than had been seen
before. His space vehicle was enclosed and powered by electricity,
and it possessed some aerodynamic soundness. This book described
the problems of building a vehicle and launch mechanism to visit
the Moon. At the end of the book, Verne's characters were shot
into space by a 900-foot-long cannon. Verne picked up the story
in a second novel, Autour de la Lune (Around the Moon),
describing a lunar orbital flight, but he did not allow his characters
actually to land.
Von Braun, Wernher, and Ryan, C. "Can We Get To Mars?"
Colliers. 30 April 1954, pp. 22-29. During the Second World
War German scientists, including Wernher von Braun, began testing
spacecraft models based on Snger's concepts as well as theories
of their own. This article popularized the idea of a reusable
earth-to-orbit space transportation system.
Wells, H.G. The First Men in the Moon. London: George Newness,
1901. This is a pioneering work of science fiction that described
in detail the method of reaching the Moon and encounters with
Wright, Mike. "The Disney-Von Braun Collaboration and Its
Influence on Space Exploration." In Schenker, Daniel; Hanks,
Craig; Kray, Susan. Editors. Inner Space, Outer Space: Humanities,
Technology, and the Postmodern World. Huntsville, AL: Southern
Humanities Conference, 1993, pp. 151-60. This is a solid discussion
of the role of Walt Disney and Wernher von Braun in promoting
space exploration in the 1950s through a series of three segments
on Disney's weekly television program. The second of these segments
dealt with a human flight to the Moon.
Wilson, Charles Reagan. "American Heavens: Apollo and the
Civil Religion." Journal of Church and State. 26 (Spring
1984): 209-26. Applying the concept of American civil religion--a
set of values and ethical beliefs--to Project Apollo, the author
finds that the effort revealed an important link between science
and technology, religion, and American self-understanding. He
suggests that Apollo participants tied religion and science together
in a surprising way. He concluded: "One sees elements of
both a rational religion, which can be traced back to the Enlightenment,
and an evangelical religion, which has been the nation's culturally
dominent religious force through most of American history"
(p. 210). Wilson explores the intriguing questions of rhetoric
and belief, ritual and symbolism within the context of the U.S.