The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project|
Reviewing Flight Readiness
On 22 May, Low and Kotelnikov chaired the
joint Flight Readiness Review at the Presidium of the Soviet Academy
of Sciences. Reviewing the extensive preparations and testing that
had taken place since the Mid-Term Review held in October 1973, the
FRR was patterned after those traditionally conducted by NASA before
all U.S. space flights. This formal management evaluation was
designed "to assure that all appropriate steps [had] been taken by
both sides to verify that the critical equipment and operations of
each side [had] been planned or manufactured to meet the IED/ASTP
Nearly all the joint pre-flight activities had been completed in time
for the FRR. Concurrent with the launch site activities,
representatives of Working Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 had put the
finishing touches on their pre-flight preparations, and the Technical
Directors had cleared up their last minute questions of mutual
Lunney and Bushuyev began the 5-hour review
with technical histories of their respective spacecraft. In addition
to comments about the readiness of ASTP hardware, the Technical
Directors indicated that 133 documents had been negotiated and
signed. While some flight-related documents were to be updated prior
to the mission, only the post-mission report remained to be prepared.
During their hour-presentation on Working Group 0 activities, Low
raised a few questions. He asked Bushuyev if there had been any
hardware anomalies in either of the unmanned ASTP test flights or in
that would require changes in the ASTP flight hardware. Bushuyev
indicated that there had been only two minor problems - the cabin
cooling system had directed too much cool air on the cosmonauts'
feet, and the crew had had some minor difficulties with the food.
Neither of these problems had required hardware changes. Bushuyev
reported no difficulties with ASTP hardware during the test
 With the completion
of their presentations, the Technical Directors turned the
proceedings over to the Working Group chairmen. During the course of
the review, fifteen Soviets and twelve Americans at the main
conference table followed the presentations in specially prepared
notebooks, which contained briefing charts and bilingual
illustrations. The Working Group presentations were made by the
co-chairmen who had not reported during the Mid-Term Review - V. A.
Timchenko, V. P. Legostayev, R. D. White, B. V. Nikitin, and W. W.
5. "U.S. Proposal for a
Joint ASTP Flight Readiness Review" [n.d.].
6. ASTP notebook, kept
by Leonard S. Nicholson, for May-Nov. 1975.
7. Low, "Notes from
Visit to Soviet Union, May 17-23, 1975," 5 June 1975. According to
data supplied by R. H. Dietz on 6 June 1975, the Soviet lineup at the
main table was as follows: B. V. Nikitin, Yu. S. Dolgopolov, V. S.
Syromyatnikov, V. P. Legostayev, V. A. Timchenko, A. A. Leonov, Yu.
V. Zonov, K. D. Bushuyev, V. A. Kotelnikov, B. N. Petrov, A. I.
Tsarev, M. V. Sokolov, V. S. Vereshchetin, I. Rumyantsev, Tulin, and
Sagdayev. The Americans present included C. M. Lee, H. E. Smith, R.
O. Aller, A. W. Frutkin, A. B. Tatistcheff, G. M. Low, G. S. Lunney,
J. F. Yardley, W. J. Kapryan, W. W. Guy, L. S. Nicholson, and R. D.
White. See also "Apollo Soyuz Test Project, Flight Readiness Review,
May 1975," 25 May 1975.